Real-time games for Instantaneous feedback 

Driver Game -  A non - interactive gaming interface

      The driver game (DG) is a non-interactive gaming option for drivers with features involving immediate feedback of driving performance and a gamified representation of performance evolution. The game comprises two views (driver view and status view) for reducing distraction from driving task. The driver view has gradient window, which initially starts with pale yellow color and eventually shades towards green based on driver performance. This view is the primary game scene, where the internal status, game properties (lives, levels, scores, etc.,) and flow of the game are hidden from the driver, as the more objects and visualizations on game scene tend to create a diversion. Every phase of the game, such as level status, acquiring bonus and pitfalls will be notified to the user (driver) through a vocal interface. Therefore, the user can focus on driving task without needing to look on for game status.

Video captured during the field tests of driver game in public buses in Genoa, Italy

.      Entire details of the game can be visualized in status view and this can be done by a co-passenger or when the driver stops in a traffic. The status view comprises level indications representing the completed levels, scores, bonus/malus gauge for estimating performance outcome based on current performance and lives remaining for game completion. Unlike the driver view, which shades from yellow to green as driver progress the levels, the status view represents the more detailed aspects.























       The DG comprises five levels, and each level needs to be completed within a certain amount of time (for example a level can last from 2 - 10 minutes). Initially, players are supplied with three lives to complete the game. The task of the drivers is to manage the time and secure better scores, so every level holds a time and target; the player needs to secure average target points corresponding to levels and when the levels increase the target criteria become more and time in which it needs to be secured reduces. When the player completes a level within the specified time, a bonus will be granted for performance, and if the player fails to complete the level, a malus will be incurred with life loss and causes the player to replay the level. While replaying a level, the user must show consistent improvement in performance to overcome the loss caused by malus. The malus will not only deplete the player life but also incurs a score drop and this adds up more complexity for the gameplay. The bonus multiplier that gets added up to player scores on completion of a level supports the game progress when the player proceeds to higher levels where the target limits are more. To determine whether the player will secure a bonus/malus based on current performance, a bonus/malus gauge has been deployed, and by comparing the current scores with expected target and time limit, the gauge determines the outcome in the current level. The time limit and targets can be customized by drivers as well, and the scores log is maintained in the cloud server. The summary of driver game mechanism can be defined by an energy equation corresponding to the game mechanics associated with driver performance.







     The energy of the driver is given by the individual performance of the driver along with level bonus and bonus multiplier of the corresponding level. The individual performance of the driver is complimented at each level with a minimum level bonus and the level bonus increases as the user progress with further levels. The bonus multiplier is determined by the user performance in a particular level if the user completes a level within the allocated time the bonus multiplier is added to the final score and if the user fails then the bonus multiplier remains at zero.The bonus multipliers are necessary when the user progresses in the game, because in higher levels the target scores will be more and the duration to achieve them will be less, so in that case the individual performance needs an uplift with bonus multiplier to manage the challenging gameplay.Game interacts with the cloud server for every 5 seconds to extract the driver performance results (scores ranging from 0 -100, as computed by in-car evaluators) and this aspect facilitates the drivers to understand the immediate feedback of performance on game scene. When the performance is good, there are more possibilities for the player to gain points and progress levels and if there should be a performance drop, then it gets reflected on game scene. The primary aim of DG is to provide a simple interface to support immediate feedback and encourage user participation. The methodology of immediate feedback keeps the user updated about current happenings in the game and ensures that user progresses throughout the gameplay. Thus, the driver game provides a real-time performance feedback on a gamified environment based on driving events such as brake, acceleration, and steering wheel angle

Driver game interface – game views (driver view and status view)

Passenger Game -  An interactive arcade gaming interface

    The aim of Passenger game (PG) is to extend the gamification process for the community of road users; the driver performance details were exploited to form a source for an interactive gamified environment for passengers. The PG is an arcade space shooter game comprising two levels, and the game is played by the passenger in real-time, based on the driver performance results. The game combines the skills of passenger and context values supplied by driver performance, and the game platform interacts with cloud server for every 20 seconds to fetch the driver performance results (average driver performance scores ranging from 0-100). Passenger game environment adapts the gameplay challenges based on driver performance, as in during better driver performance, the passenger has more scope to tackle the enemies on game scene and progress levels. Whereas, in case of bad driver performance (including harsh maneuvers and braking events), the game scene becomes adverse (entry of multiple enemies on the game scene to form a hindrance for player progress) and more challenging for the passengers.

Video captured during the field tests of passenger game in public buses in Genoa, Italy

The passenger game overview and control flow